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o Integrated Disease Surveillance Project (IDSP) Epidemic Activity

Introduction:
Integrated Disease Surveillance Project (IDSP) a decentralized, state based surveillance programme in the country was initiated by the Government of India in November 2004 with funding support from World Bank. It is intended to detect early warning signals of impending outbreaks and help initiate an effective response in a timely manner. It is also expected to provide essential data to monitor progress of on-going disease control programmes and help allocate health resources more efficiently.

 

All outbreaks cannot be predicted or prevented. However, precautionary measures can be taken within the existing health infrastructure and service delivery to reduce risks of outbreaks and to minimize the scale of the outbreak, if it occurs. The effectiveness with which national programmes are implemented and monitored, the alertness for identification of early warning signals and the capacity for initiating recommended specific interventions in a timely manner are important to achieve the objectives.

 

Objectives:
The overall general objective of the IDSP is to provide a rational basis for decision making and implementing public health interventions that are efficacious in responding to priority diseases. Keeping this in mind the main objectives of the IDSP are:
• To establish a decentralized district based system of surveillance for communicable and non-communicable diseases so that timely and effective public health actions can be initiated in response to health challenges in the urban and rural areas.
• To integrate existing surveillance activities (to the extent possible without having a negative impact on their activities) so as to avoid duplication and facilitate sharing of information across all disease control programmes and other stake holders, so that valid data are available for decision making at district, state and national levels.

 

Types of Surveillance:
Depending on the level of expertise and specificity, disease surveillance in IDSP will be of following three categories:
i. Syndromic – Diagnosis made on the basis of symptoms/clinical pattern by paramedical personnel and members of the community.
ii. Presumptive – Diagnosis made on typical history and clinical examination by Medical Officer.
iii. Confirmed – Clinical diagnosis confirmed by an appropriate laboratory test.

 

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